Day 1 :
University of the West of Scotland, UK
Professor Abraham Ogwu has held the chair of biomaterials, thin film devices and Nanotechnology at the University of the West of Scotland (Former Paisley University since 2002). He leads the Engineering and Biomedical coatings research group in the institute of thin films, sensors and imaging (former Thin film centre), school of engineering and computing in the University. He is a Fellow of the U.K. Institute of Physics (FinstP) and the U.K. Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining (FIMMM). He previously held academic appointments at the School of Materials, Manchester University, England, U.K. (1994-98) and in the School of Engineering and the former Nanotechnology Institute of the University of Ulster(NIBEC), now Engineering Research Institute, Northern Ireland, U.K. (1998-2002).
One of the best and most utilized semiconductor photo-catalyst reported currently in literature is Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide has many advantages as a photo-catalyst such as low cost, availability, chemical and photochemical stability. It however has a bandgap of about 3.1ev and is activated using ultraviolet radiation which is costly to generate. Several attempts have been made to develop photo-catalysts activated using visible light, but the development of a photo-catalyst that is cheap enough and activated using visible light, has remained a major challenge to date. We have prepared optically transparent and visible wavelength photo-catalytically activated antimicrobial silver oxide thin films using reactive magnetron sputtering. Our x-ray diffraction analysis of the films confirmed the presence of two phases Ag2O and Ag4O4 reported in literature to have antimicrobial properties. The chemical composition and stoichiometry of the films was monitored with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using the peak shape of the Ag3d5/2 and Ag3d3/2 binding energy peaks. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the optical bandgap in the visible wavelength range and confirm up to 80% optical transmission in the visible in the films. The release of silver ions in water and saline solution by the films was confirmed with atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements. Microbial cell adhesion and growth on the films was imaged with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). We also confirmed complete microbial cell deaths of Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Epidermidis and Staphylococcus Aureus within 20 minutes on exposure to the silver oxide films using killing curve measurements. The mechanism of bacterial attack by the films can be associated with silver ion release, the ease of ligand replacement in the silver oxide stoichiometry and their exchange and interference with biological ligands in the microbes. Silver ion replacement of metals in the biochemical complexes in bacteria can alter their structure, function and dynamics leading to bacteria death. Our current finding opens the door to furthering the development of non-ultraviolet (UV), but visible light activated antimicrobial surfaces. The silver oxide films also have the potential to be incorporated as an antimicrobial layer with controlled ion release on orthopaedic and medical implant coatings
- Clinical and Biomedical Engineering
Location: Osaka, Japan
University of Pretoria, South Africa
Andre van Zyl completed his postgraduate qualification as a specialist in Oral Medicine and Periodontics (Cum Laude) in 1989 at the University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa. He is currently the head of department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. He is also Chair of the International Team for Implantology Center of Excellence at Pretoria and also Chair of the ITI Scholarship Center there.
The engineering of dental implant surfaces has shown tremendous development over the past decade. Bone-to-implant interface is influenced mainly by implant surface topography. The objective was to analyse the exact surface area of different implant diamters of 5 systems using micro-focus cone beam tomography.
One hundred implants were scanned at Necsa (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation) which houses the Nikon XTH 225 ST micro-focus CT scanner. The spatial resolution obtained is 1-3 μm instead of 300 μm for CBCT. To obtain a high quality 3D-virtual image at this high spatial resolution, the number of 2D projections increases from 375 to 8000. Analysis was done using VGStudioMAX-3.0 visualization software (Volume Graphics GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany).
Statistical analysis showed Ankylos had the largest mean implant surface area (151.90mm2) in the narrow platform (NP) group and Neodent the smallest (125.95mm2).
Megagen implants had the largest surface area (227.39mm2) in the regular platform (RP) group and Neodent the smallest (164.25mm2). Statistically significant differences (P<0.001) were found between systems.
NP implants have become important in order to avoid complex bone augmentation procedures. It is therefore important for surgeons to know the exact surface area of NP versus RP implants. The greater the surface area of implants, the less pressure on the surrounding bone, which is of importance from a biomechanical point of view. This is the largest study of its kind using micro-focus CT technology and can be used as a reference for future studies. There is currently no reliable data on total implant surface area.
Patheon Inc., USA
Mr. Dan Liu has completed his Masters degree in Chemical Engineering at the age of 25 from Temple University in Philadelphia, USA and he obtained his MBA degree at the age of 30 from University of Iowa. He is currently the process engineer at Patheon Inc., a leading contract manufacturing organization (CMO) in the USA specializing in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient manufacturing. He has held several patents and been invited to numerous research focused symposium worldwide. He has significant knowledge in API manufacturing in a controlled cGMP environment.
Novel statistical tools have been applied to the manufacturing industry, process design/engineering and other industries for more than two decades. These tools are frequently used in process optimizations as well as the diagnosis of various process failures. The goal of using statistical techniques in a manufacturing environment is to improve the process efficiency and ultimately increase the batch consistency and/or reduce the overall project cost. This paper is to use a case study in a cGMP (curernt Good Manufacture Practice) pharmaceutical manufacturing environment to demonstrate how statistic techniques could be deployed to diagnose the bottleneck of a continuous manufacturing process. Multivariate analysis was used as a novel statistical tool to illustrate how variables to a process could affect the yield of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) manufacturing process. Our results suggested that human factor (HF) variable such as lead operator involvement, positive-emotion operator participation will have a positive influence on the final API yield, while operator mentality variable such as knowing holiday approaching and numbers of operators in a production shift will have a negative impact on the API yield (AY). We also examined technical factor (TF) variables specifically related to the chemical process in this case such as temperature, holding time, pH, etc., we discovered that only certain yield critical variables will have the influence on the final API yield where explanations were given using reaction mechanism. Finally, we investigated cGMP factors (GF) variables such as the number of deviations issued, the number of supplements issued, the number of corrective actions and preventative actions (CAPA) issued, and the number of cGMP documentation corrections, the results suggested only certain GF variable will bear statistical significance against the API yield. We also documented the various level of statistical influence on independent variable such machine time (MT) using the same HF, TF and GF factors variables and we also proposed statistical relationship of those dependent variables against MT. We then proposed my recommendations as to how to increase the process yield and reduce the machine time strategically.
Guangxi Medical University, China
Prof. Yongxiang Zhao is the innovative leading talent of National "Ten Thousand Talent Programme", the director of the National Center for International Research of Biological Targeting Diagnosis and Therapy, the moderator of the BIT’s 5th World Gene Convention Keynote Forum---Nobel Laureate Forum. He has taken charge of 14 national science and technology major projects and 16 provincial and ministerial projects.
Focus on biological targeting diagnosis and therapy for tumor, including: 1. The key targets and mechanism of malignant tumor’s occurrence and progress. 2. Homologous antitumor vaccines. 3. Research and development of heterologous oncolytic biological drugs. 4. Research and development of tumor biotargeted diagnostic reagents.
Based on these research results, 79 SCI papers have been published in international journals, such as Nature Biotechnology (IF=41.67), and so on. One International Academic Award, one ministerial and provincial first prize, thirty national patents and two authorized international PCT patents.
Background: Tumor vessels can potentially serve as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets for solid tumors. Fluorescent dyes are commonly used as biological indicators, while photobleaching seriously hinders their application. In this study, we aim to generate a fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSiNPs) theranostic system marked by the mouse endgolin (mEND) aptamer, YQ26. Methods: A highly specific YQ26 was selected by using gene-modified cell line-based SELEX technique. FSiNPs were prepared via the reverse microemulsion method. The YQ26-FSiNPs theranostic system was developed by combining YQ26 with the FSiNPs for in vivo tumor imaging, treatment and monitoring. Results: Both in vitro experiments (i.e. cellular and tumor tissue targeting assays) and in vivo animal studies (i.e. in vivo imaging and antitumor efficacy of YQ26-FSiNPs) clearly demonstrated that YQ26-FSiNPs could achieve prominently high targeting efficiency and therapeutic effects via aptamer YQ26-mediated binding to endoglin (END) molecule. Conclusion: This simple, sensitive, and specific YQ26-FSiNPs theranostic system has a great potential for clinical tumor targeting imaging and treatment.
Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Republic of Korea
Dr. Eunjoo Kim (Ph.D.- Environmental Toxicology), now is an Principal Research Scientist of Companion Diagnostics and Medical Technology Research Group, DGIST. She got her BS and MS in biochemistry at Yonsei University, and Ph.D. in Environmental Toxicology at Seoul National University, Korea. Currently Dr. Kim’s researches focus on the circulating biomarkers and nanomedicine, especially for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on non-invasive biomarkers and nano-bio materials. She also concentrates in developing new types of biomarkers and their detection system for liquid biopsy, such as exomes and circulating tumor cells based on nano-bio technologies.
Molecular changes during aging have been studied to understand the mechanism of aging progress. Herein, changes in miRNA expression in the whole blood and exosomes of mice were studied to systemically reverse aging and propose as non-invasive biomarkers. Through next generation sequencing analysis, we selected 27 differentially expressed miRNAs in whole blood of mice during aging. The most recognized function involved was liver steatosis, a type of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among 27 miRNAs, six were predicted to be involved in NAFLD, miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-21a-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-103-3p, and miR-130a-3p. The expression of the genes associated in the network of these miRNAs, Bcl2, Ppara, E2f1, E2f2, Akt, Ccnd1, and Smad2/3, was also altered in the liver of aged mice. Following transfection of these miRNAs into old mice, levels of transfected miRNAs in liver increased, and expression of Mre11a, p16INK4a, and Mtor, reported to be aging-associated molecules, was also reversed in the livers. In case of exosomal transfection from young to old mice, similar results were obtained. The identified molecules in whole blood and exosome might induce a reverse-regulation of aging-associated pathways. This study provides preliminary data on reverse-aging, which could be applied further for treatments of adult diseases.
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Claudia Moraes de Rezende is a professor/ researcher at the Chemistry Institute of UFRJ, dealing with natural products chemistry and spectroscopy, and she is also the vice-president in the Brazilian Society of Mass Spectrometry (BrMass).
Leishmaniasis is a public health problem in 98 countries and its therapy is based on pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, amphotericin B and miltefosine. For all of them high toxicity, elevated cost and parasite resistance have been reported. Natural products are potential sources of novel active molecules that may provide structural template for drug discovery. Studies showed that coffee intake may be effective against heart and coronary disease, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Cafestol and kahweol (C&K) are two natural coffee diterpenes with antitumoral, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C&K together and separately against Leishmania amazonensis. Cytotoxicity of C&K (1:1) for host cells was investigated by the XTT method. Our results demonstrated a CC50 of 26.9µg/mL. Besides, C&K presented an anti-L. amazonensis activity with an IC50 of 4.7µg/mL for promastigote forms, while for intracellular amastigotes the IC50 was 12.3µg/mL. The C&K selectivity index was 2.19. Our results showed that C&K does not induce nitric oxide (NO) production on macrophages infected with L. amazonensis, moreover, reduced 2.1-fold the NO production on IFN-γ and LPS-activated macrophages. To rule out a possible NO scavenger effect of C&K, a cell-free system was used with SNAP as a NO donor in the presence or not of C&K, and these drugs were not able to reduce NO levels. However, they increase 2.1-fold the production of reactive oxygen species in infected macrophages. Our data point C&K as promising substances for the development of a drug with leishmanicidal activity.
Will be updated soon.
In the past few years there have been major innovations in the medical devices field leading to tremendous improvement in the quality of devices; with this we`ve had accurate diagnosis and subsequently more appropriate therapeutic action. Sterilization equipment, Imaging equipment, ICU equipment, Dental equipment, IVD and Physiotherapy equipment are some of the areas I’ve had the opportunity to interact with but my favorite has been Operating Theatre equipment. Operating theatre equipment also referred to as surgical equipment have the following equipment: -
Theatre table, Theatre light, Anaesthetic machine, and Electrosurgical unit to mention but a few. Theatre table- We have witnessed evolvement from purely mechanical table to hydro-mechanical, and finally to electro-mechanical. Remote controls have also been inculcated into the system ensuring unique movements are precisely achieved. This has eased the work of the surgical teams during operations as they would previously operate the tables manually.
Theatre light- As opposed to what was commonly used a few years ago and is still in use in a number of hospitals, there has been a transition from the use of Halogen bulb to LED. In turn, there has been lower consumption of electricity by theatre lights and fail rate is at an all-time low. This is because LED`s have a lifespan of 13 times more than Halogen bulbs.
Anaesthetic machine- Inventions and improvements have been numerous, but we have to give it up for the accurate measurement of Oxygen to the patient, Anaesthetic agent to and fro the patient, as well as many safety features.
Electrosurgical unit- A lot needs to be done when it comes to ESU. First, complains have been on the dissipation of power above set values, training of doctors has also not been to the required standards in many places. Active and Return plates have been noted to have high failure rates, more durable ones need to be produced. That said, my immediate academic works has to do with return plate failure to handle dissipated power: Let me take you through what happens. During a surgical operation the neutral plate is placed beneath the patient but in contact with the skin while the active plate is used to cut the patient skin on the upper side. As the operation progresses the return plate is bound to move without the knowledge of the surgical team. If this happens, the small area that is left in contact will handle more power than it should, making it heat up. This heat will then be transferred to the patient skin leading to burns called “endogenous burns” In an attempt to stop this, am researching on the possibility of including pressure transducers on the four corners of the return plate such that if one corner is not in contact with the patients skin, an alarm will be produced.
ESUT College of Medicine, Nigeria
Professor Samuel Agina Igwe is a leading Ethnopharmacologist in West Africa, and a foremost ocular pharmacologist in the region. He has authored text books for use by medical and optometry students, has journal publications in the highly rated impact-factor journals such as Thomson Reuters Index, etc. An academic editor of high repute and having edited the journal of health and visual sciences (JHVS) an AJOL/online journal for more than two decades and has helped to breed young scientist and sits editorial boards of journals. Prof Igwe has all along established three Departments of Pharmacology in three colleges of medicine in the South-East, Nigeria and holds consultancy service to local and International bodies including NAFDAC, FHI, etc. He is currently working on Ocular kynematics of the various indigenous and locally consumed food spices.
Palm wine is a milky white effervescence fluid or sap obtained from the tree (Elaeis guineensis), and is widely consumed among the various ethnic nationalities in Nigeria. The effect of bolus ingestion of 600ml, palm wine was undertaken so as to determine its ocular dynamics in healthy volunteers. Results showed that bolus ingestion of palm wine produced effects on general body physiology in which the functions of the eye were affected. Results further showed that the NPC decreased from 10.5cm to 8.5cm (19.1% fall), the AA change from 8.0D to 9.0D or 12.5% rise, while the distant lateral phoria changed from ortho position to two(2) esoposition or 30% increase, and the mean phoria moved from 6exo to 4exo or 33.3% decrease. Furthermore, the IOP dropped from the initial value of 17.5mmHg to 13.5mmHg (22.9%) fall at the end of the study. The pupil diameter demonstrated slight miosis which was still within normal range. Results also showed that the VA at near remained unchanged while the distant VA increased by 9.9% and the AC/A ratio decreased from initial value of 3.75 to final value of 2.75 or 26.7% fall. We that a single clear binocular vision is dependent on the perfect coordination of the convergence and accommodative mechanisms and any slight change in the balance as induced by palm wine intake will disrupt the equilibrium effect on visual functions hence the accompanying diplopia, blurred vision or vision impairment.
Novosibirsk State Tehnical University, Russia
Will be updated soon.
Diabetic foot is a pathological state of human foot within diabetes mellitus disease. The cause of diabetic foot is complex damage of peripheral nerves, bones, joints, vessels. Moreover the risk of ulcerous-necrotic processes is increased. According statistics in developing countries the diabetic foot injuries make 40 % of total diabetes mellitus diseases. Additionally the diabetic foot is the cause of 80 % ablations. Up to 6 % of World population are suffered from diabetes mellitus disease. Every 10-15 years the quantity of patient with diabetes is doubled. We suggest the biotechnical system for accelerated healing of trophic ulcer. It implements integral actionof following biophysical effects: magnetoelectric, ultraviolet, bioimpedance. Magnetoelectric part is based on adaptation magnetic field gradient for the particular part of thetrophic ulcer. This option is achieved byinduction matrixswitching according the preinstall system settings. Ultraviolet part decontaminates the ulcer surface. Bioimpedance part is a biological feedback which characterize the healing process. Clinical experience shows that variable magnetic field utilization allows to decreasehealing period in 1.5-2 times. Our biotechnical system is able to generate different types of magnetic fields: standing wave, flowing amplification from ulcer side to its center. Therefore there is a window of opportunity for WBC and fibroblastconcentration which accelerates ulcer healing. Inductors are positioned over the injury thus the therapy effect is noninvasive. The system could be remotely controlled by the physician with designed PC user interface.